How to write a comparative and contrast essay?

Spread the love

How to write a comparative and contrast essay?

Sometimes, for an in-depth assessment of historical figures, processes, and phenomena, it is advisable to use the method of comparative analysis. For example, compare the state system of the two countries with a similar mentality of people and the level of economic development. The classical structure of the comparative analysis includes the comparison of several objects, evaluating the object from different angles, identifying features and disadvantages. The aim of the author is to discover the common features and characteristic differences of the objects being compared.

At the moment, there are many ways to conduct a comparative analysis. Let us draw attention to the main points by which a comparative analysis of the object under study is built. Here are some of them.


a context should be found, the main idea around which further work will be carried out. Simply put, the context can be: a certain problem, a theory, the main idea that relates to the main object of research. Here is an example, if the purpose of the study is to compare two legal norms that are externally similar to one another, it will be correct to fully study the problems of a given question, relying on those areas of legal relations in which legal norms are implemented. In order to add hardness to the work, finally convincing the readers of their conclusions, it is necessary to carry out an in-depth analysis of the processes under study, scroll through various judgments in the head, approaches to this issue. after which highlight the main conclusions, which will be the basis of the context in a comparative analysis. When working, it is advisable to use authoritative sources by placing a link to them. Comparative analysis cannot be made without a verified context, because it will deprive you of the foundation necessary to build an evidence base when comparing two objects.


In the process of research, it is necessary to substantiate the reason according to which comparisons of two similar objects will be made. For example, we need to compare what is more beneficial to health: cabbage or beets. The reader will look for logic than the researcher was guided by when choosing objects for comparison. what does the researcher need to do, give the reader iron reasons, why is it necessary to pay attention to these objects of study? Assessing the correctness of your choice and realizing the logical chain of your arguments, the reader will understand that this topic did not arise “from the ceiling,” which means you should pay attention to it. So, you should specify the reasons for choosing a research topic.

How to link to the source in MLA format in a research paper

The Modern Language Association – (MLA) – has its own guidelines for creating links to sources, and you may be lucky to use them by virtue of your business or as instructed by your teacher. All standards are listed in the MLA Guide for Research Writers. Despite this, the protocol can be quite confusing, especially if your teacher leaves you on your own.

Inline footnotes

Specify the link to the author when sourcing in the research paper in MLA style. This is done in two ways. The name of the author can be specified in the work itself or in the link. In both cases, brackets or page number (s) are required. Take a look at examples from Purdue:

“Kenneth Burke described people as” animals using symbols “(3).” In this case, the author’s name is included in the sentence itself.

“People have been described as” animals using symbols “(Burke 3).” Thus, the author’s name is included in the link.

If the name of the author is unknown, it is enough to indicate the title of the work. Nowadays, more and more work without specific authorship. In this case, specify the title of the article. Take a look at Cornell’s example:

“We see so much global warming in the hot spots of North America, probably because there are” more accessible climate information and more comprehensive programs for monitoring and studying environmental changes in this region … “(” Consequences of Global Warming “6). ” If the name is too long, shorten it. Skip the beginning of the article and start with the word specified in the alphabetical order of the List of used literature.

Combine multiple links in one sentence. All right – this is doable. If you have several authors or several sources (or all together), combine them in one sentence. Sometimes they are difficult to enclose in one bracket because it is better not to do it often.

This hypothesis (Herrick and Coleman 18) exposes this theory (Clark, Masterson and Andrews 32). In order not to make two footnotes in one sentence, include the name of the author (authors’ names) in the sentence itself. So, it will be easier for perception.

If you have two authors (no matter if they are in a single quote or not), write their first initials to distinguish one from the other.

If you want to specify the release before the page number, specify its number. For example: “Jennings hints at the consequences (116-19, 203).”

Footnote to electronic and indirect sources. Here, MLA formatting is somewhat more complicated. But do not shirk it. However, remember, many of the online sources are wrong and illegal.

How to write an introduction to research?

An introduction to a scientific article may turn out to be the most difficult part of the whole article devoted to research work. The amount of introduction depends on the type of scientific article. The introduction states the topic of the article, substantiates its prerequisites and relevance, and then sets out the issues considered in the paper and the hypothesis put forward. A well-written introduction sets the tone for the entire work, attracts the reader’s attention and communicates the hypothesis or abstract statements.

Submission of the topic of the article

State your research topic. You can start the introduction with a few sentences on the topic of the article and listing the questions you are going to address in it. This is a good way to introduce the topic under discussion to readers and interest them. The first few sentences should mention a rather broad problem, on which you will focus on a more detailed discussion in the following introduction text, which as a result will lead you to the formulation of narrower research questions and problems.

Such a scheme is sometimes called the “funnel” or “inverted pyramid” method. You start with some general information on your topic, more and more narrowing it as you approach the formulation of the research problem.

The phrase “During the 20th century, our ideas about life on other planets changed dramatically” introduces the topic of research, without limiting it to narrow limits.

Try to use keywords. When writing a scientific article for publication in specialized journals, you will be asked to provide a small list of keywords that reflect the area to which your research belongs. The headline of the article may also contain some keywords on which you want to focus the attention of readers in the introduction.

For example, if you are writing an article about the behavior of mice under the influence of a certain substance, in the first sentences of the introduction you can use the word “mice” and give the scientific name of the relevant substance.

If you are writing a historical article on the impact of World War I on gender relations in the UK, these keywords should be mentioned in the first lines of the article.

Let’s define key terms and concepts. Sometimes it is required to explain some words and expressions already in the introduction. Accuracy and clarity of presentation are necessary throughout the article, therefore you should decipher terms and concepts that are not generally accepted so that the reader can understand the course of your thoughts.

This is especially important if you develop a new concept in your work using language and terminology that may be unfamiliar to your readers.

How to write a good dissertation?

Below I will try to briefly describe the main points that should be paid attention to when preparing and defending a dissertation (first of all the candidate’s, of course, because those who write a doctoral thesis are, in theory, held scientists, and they themselves have a mustache).

At the same time, I will note that all of the below is in no way the official position of academic councils or, on the contrary, the secret knowledge of the clan of professors, but simply the subjective opinion of a single person taken by me.

1. First and foremost.

You should definitely give yourself the answer to the question – why do you personally need a dissertation? We need a very, very serious motivation to start this job. This is a difficult and often unpleasant work, which will take several months very intensively, and at least for a couple of years it will hang constantly with a Damocles sword. I don’t have big statistics, but I would say that out of 10 beginners it’s good if 2 complete the job.

2. Never confuse science and dissertation.

You can do this science all your life and not have degrees. You can defend a thesis that has nothing to do with science.

3. Dissertation – a scientific qualification work.

Which means – a graduate student must show sufficient qualifications in order to be considered a scientist. If you read about the initiation rites of the ancient tribes – writing and protection very much remind them. You go through artificially constructed circles of hell to prove you are worthy.

4. The choice of supervisor is important, but not critical.

For to help you in the process of work, it is not a fact of what will happen. He is a critical figure at the first and last stage – when it is determined where and where to dig, and when it is necessary to suggest how best to arrange and protect the finished work.

But if you are lucky and the leader is sincerely interested in your work – appreciate. Do not let his enthusiasm burn out, show progress regularly.

5. Measure contribution and result.

If you put too little soul into the work, it will be very boring to do. If you invest a lot – you can be very disappointed when you realize that there is very little work needed for you but you.

6. It is necessary to clearly understand how the dissertation is analyzed.

In the worst case, the dissertation itself is read by exactly one person – you yourself. In a typical – three more, opponents and a supervisor. VAK and others look at the accompanying documents. The Council itself – speaking on the defense to evaluate the work is more than enough. But the author’s abstract can already read a few dozen people. And an introduction to the abstract (i.e. first pages 5) is already mastered by a hundred.